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2023.11.30

The photovoltaic power plant converts solar energy into electrical energy. However, this electrical energy is different from traditional grid electricity because it is direct current (DC) energy. Therefore, a series of DC circuit breakers, DC fuses, and DC surge protectors are needed to protect the equipment and system of the photovoltaic power plant. In this article, we will discuss the functions and applications of these DC electrical products in detail.


1. DC Circuit Breakers


DC circuit breakers are protective devices used to interrupt DC circuits. Their main function is to automatically disconnect the circuit in the event of a fault or abnormal situation to protect the safety of equipment and personnel. The role of DC circuit breakers in photovoltaic power plants is similar to that of air switches in AC power plants. In electrical protection systems, DC circuit breakers are essential devices. They are available in a variety of rated currents and voltages to meet different application requirements.


2. DC Fuses


DC fuses are devices used to protect DC circuits. Their main function is to automatically disconnect the circuit in the event of overload or short circuit to protect the safety of equipment and personnel. Unlike DC circuit breakers, DC fuses are one-time protection devices that need to be replaced once triggered. In photovoltaic power plants, DC fuses are usually installed at the output end of solar panels to protect the solar panels and their series circuits.


3. DC Surge Protectors


DC surge protectors are devices used to protect DC circuits. Their main function is to limit overvoltage to a safe range to protect the safety of equipment and personnel in the event of overvoltage in the circuit. DC surge protectors are usually installed at the output end of solar panels to protect the solar panels and their series circuits. In photovoltaic power plants, due to environmental factors and other reasons, overvoltage situations can occur. Therefore, DC surge protectors are very important electrical protection devices.


4. Component-Level Electrical Protection


In photovoltaic power plants, each solar panel requires an independent electrical protection system. This means that each solar panel requires an independent DC circuit breaker, DC fuse, and DC surge protector. These protective devices can prevent faults such as short circuits, overloads, and overvoltages in the solar panels, thus protecting the stability and reliability of the entire system.


5. Centralized Electrical Protection


In addition to component-level electrical protection, there is a more centralized electrical protection system. The centralized electrical protection system connects all the solar panels in series, and then uses a centralized DC circuit breaker, DC fuse, and DC surge protector to protect the entire solar panel series circuit. This centralized protection system can reduce the number of equipment and lines, thereby reducing the cost and failure rate of the system.


6. Electrical Safety Standards


For any electrical equipment and system, specific safety standards must be met. In photovoltaic power plants, these standards include IEC 61730 and IEC 62109. These standards specify the safety requirements and test methods for electrical equipment and systems to ensure the reliability and safety of the system.


7. Lightning Protection Measures for Photovoltaic Power Stations


Since the equipment and systems of photovoltaic power stations are usually installed in outdoor environments, a series of lightning protection measures need to be taken. These measures include grounding, lightning rods, surge protectors, and lightning protection devices. These devices and technologies can protect the equipment and systems of photovoltaic power stations from the effects of natural disasters such as lightning.


In summary, the electrical protection system of photovoltaic power stations includes a variety of devices and technologies such as DC circuit breakers, DC fuses, DC surge protectors, module-level electrical protection, and centralized electrical protection. These devices and technologies can protect the equipment and systems of photovoltaic power stations from faults and natural disasters such as short circuits, overloads, overvoltages, and lightning, thereby improving the reliability and safety of the system.

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